By Liz Rutledge
On Day 3 of our Reefs to Rockies exploration of Mexico, we toured a vanilla plantation in Guiterrez Zamor (about a four hour drive north of Veracruz). A lovely señora, Sylvia (with our guide Jorge’s translation), explained in loving detail how the vanilla plants are grown, harvested, beans processed and sold.
When we arrived in our 18 person van, we unloaded and walked up a steep walkway past beautiful murals and cypress trees stretching towards the heavy, grey sky. The vanilla plantation was founded by “finca” (estate boss) Orlando Gaya who immigrated to Mexico from Italy in 1873. Since then, the plantation has been operated with organic quality and purity as the highest priorities.
When we visited the orchid museum in Coatepec, we learned that vanilla is an orchid (which means “testicles” because of the shape of the bulbs). The two vanilla orchid plants grown at the Orlando Gaya Vanilla Plantation are Planifolia and Pompona. Planifolia’s flavor is a bit bitter, but the aroma is like chocolate. Whereas Pompona smells like prunes and tastes sweet. Vanilla likes to grow on two types of trees: Phichoco with its red seed pods (which we saw at the botanical gardens outside Coatepec) and the pequeena (a.k.a. Mexican bamboo). They can also grow on coconut trees (or Erythrina lanceolata) Sylvia described the vanilla plants as the “princesses” and the trees they like to grow up as the “princes”. They have a very mindful, symbiotic relationship in which the female vanilla plant nurtures the
protective male trees.
These vanilla plants are very sensitive and will actually switch genders if they are exposed to too much stress.
As we walked further along the path, we saw the shade houses where these plants are painstakingly nurtured and tended. These plants have become extremely high maintenance over time and must be hand pollinated one flower at a time. The tenders use a thin bamboo stick to spread pollen from one bloom to the next and it takes about a month to hand pollinate 6,000 plants. They say that these vanilla plants have become “lazy”. The hope with some of the experimental plantings at this vanilla plantation is to make these precious plants more resilient. Interns are working to assist in this process.
The vanilla orchid, once planted, takes 2 ½-3 years to produce flowers. Then, once pollinated, the flowers take nine months to produce the vanilla pods/beans. Only the healthiest are harvested and as the workers find fungus, worms or other disease, those plants are sterilized to prevent the spread of the disease.
The newer 19 to 25-year-old workers at the vanilla plantation get on-the-job-training as they are taught to pollinate, investigate, nurture, pick, inspect, separate, process and package the vanilla pods. Separation happens along a long conveyor belt and the pods are divided into hierba “grass”, pezon “nipple”, quebrados “broken”, and entero “complete”. The less perfect ones are used for ice cream and other vanilla products where appearance is not as important. Every step along the way, they are making sure it is a good, disease, pest and chemical-free product.
Once picked and separated, the beans are dried on mesh racks, put in a sort of “sauna” for three days, then dried further over the course of six months in a large room, regularly inspected, wrapped in blankets and kept safe. Once they are perfectly ready, they are divided yet again by level of quality and processed into bags of seeds, powder, pods, etc. and “vaulted” in stainless steel boxes behind cages, in a building with bars on the windows and electrified wires. Finally, the vanilla is inspected in a laboratory for a final inspection. At US$5/vanilla bean, we can now understand why they take such painstaking care to protect them.
After touring the processing facility, we were given a sample of a drink made with equal parts vanilla liquor and sweetened condensed milk (and ice) called beso totonaca (from the name of the Beso Totonaca Kingdom).
As you would expect, our tour ended in the gift shop where they sell many vanilla products (extract, beans, candles, ice cream and a liquor (Xanat is a brand they sell here)).
A good Mindfulness practice includes gratitude so it is good to acknowledge and thank the vanilla and its tenders for the patient process which it goes through to arrive in our chocolate chip cookies, cakes, coffees, ice cream and more.